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Mutations occur every day within our bodies without us even knowing them. Outlined here are the three categories of mutations that can occur: Synonymous, Missense, and nonsense. Synonymous mutations cause no changes in protein expression while missense and nonsense can have detrimental consequences to the organisms gene expression and also to the fitness or the individual.
Inbreeding is a complex issue with complex genetic consequences. Inbreeding does increase prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders. But in the most common interbred marriages in the world, cousin marriages, the percentage increase in risk is not by very much, contrary to popular and historic belief. In this article, we define what inbreeding is, delve into a historical implication of it, and discuss current data.
This article outlines two methods for administering gene therapy to the eye. The topics covered are the techniques, the effectiveness, the risk to the patient, and healing process. Intravitreal injections and subretinal injections have both been shown to be effective in allowing the cells to uptake the required genes but subretinal injections are more complicated to undertake, thus the field has moved towards intravitreal injections.
How are sequence maps of genomes produced? How is the information in the genome deciphered? What can comparative genomics reveal about genome structure and evolution? How does the availability of genomic sequence affect genetic analysis? These genome projects would make the clones and then make the sequence as an available public resources.
There are two types of mutations, spontaneous and induced. The first type, as is specified by its name, is a naturally occurring DNA mutation that can arise in all cells. The second set of mutations arises from the action of certain agents known as mutagens. These mutagens increase the rate at which mutations occur. However, both spontaneous and induced mutations are random, which is significant because it allows for genetic diversity within a species over time.
This article will discuss the two types of prokaryotic transposons, simple and composite, as well as the two methods of transposition, replicative and conservative, employed by transposons. You will learn the differences between the two types of prokaryotic transposons and which method of transposition is used. Replicative transposition will be covered in detail as it is more complicated than conservative transpoition. Eukaryotic transposons will not be discussed.
This article will explain the differences between cDNA and genomic libraries and how each method is different. cDNA uses many steps to isolate a strand of DNA while genomic library depends on the size and tolerance of the cloned DNA. Although both are different they serve a purpose in storing information about their respective fragments. This will help in the long run in case researchers are stuck so that they donâ€™t have to repeat the same process over and over again. Both types of librar...
This article talks about the different types of RNA which are the following:Messenger RNA, small inteferring RNA, microRNA, long non-coding RNA, transfer RNA,ribosomal RNA,small nuclear RNA, and RNAi. The article explains what each of the RNA's do inside the human body. The article explains each of the classes of RNA roles in eukaryotes and some in prokaryotes.
The article is a basic introduction to the different types of cell division that occur by different cell cycles. The primary focus of the article is bacteria which has a controversial question revolving around it about whether or not is sexually reproduces or not. While there is no definitive answer for this, the article provides enough facts to help anyone say whether or not it's the case.
The Lac operon is a group of genes all transcribed at the same time. It is used in Escherichia Coli to breakdown Lactose into glucose and fructose by breaking the 1,4-glycosidic linkage between Lactose. Certain proteins such as CAP must be present along with cAMP for the operon to be switched on.
This article is an overview of the genetic factor which causes alopecia (more commonly known as hair loss in both men and women). The genetic form of this condition is called androgenetic alopecia, in which a high level of the hormone androgen will cause the hair follicles to shed off of a man's head.
Pedigree is a diagram that demonstrates the genetic characteristics within a family. The genetic traits may be traced back along the generations. Interpreting the pedigree chart involves the understanding of certain symbols; which may have specific representations among the generations. The commonly used symbol of a circle and square represent the biological sex of an individual.
As of today, we all know that DNA is the hereditary material in all living things. However, how did we come to such a conclusion? It was all thanks to the experiments led by Frederick Griffith and Oswald Avery. GriffithÂ’s experiment found what seems to be a transformation agent that gave life to dead cells. This transformation agent is later identified by AveryÂ’s experiment.
What is new in the science world today? Genetic Engineering is a big topic that is being studied to prevent disease, increase agriculture growth rates, and help develop vaccines. There is much research being done on it and so far the results look very hopeful. Could it be possible that in the years to come the world will be cancer and diabetes free?
Three Point Test Crosses are allows geneticists to analyze at the gene order of loci, distances between the loci, and their linkage relationship. This article is an explanation of how to use and analyze three point testcrosses of trihybrid heterozygous crosses and how to analyze and utilize the information about recombination.
Genetics consists the study of genes, which is concerned with the diversity, replication, mutation, and translation of the information in the genes. Why is genetics important to our society? Can genetics be bad? This article will explain the history behind genetics and as well as good/bad information regarding our genes.
The immune system is the mechanism in which molecules known as antibodies or immunoglobulins are produced and made to become genetically diverse. This process allows for antibodies to make different combinations in order to be specific to certain viruses and bacteria. The genetic diversity helps protect our body from any types of sicknesses and diseases.
Describes the basic meaning of the statistical tests. Punnet and chi square tests are used in genetics for statistical purposes. These tests benefit many because the allow anyone to see how relevant the results are with what is expected and if it is not just random chance that the results may have been one way.
Cell cycle consists of G1, S, G2, and M phase. G1 phase consists of checkpoints that make sure cell has enough resources to move to S phase. In S phase chromosomes are duplicated. Then, G2 checkpoint makes sure DNA is duplicated accurately to proceed to M phase. M phase consists of mitosis (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) and cytokinesis.
Drosophila Melanogaster or more commonly known as Fruit Flies, are more complex than you would think. They are Model Organisms used for introduction Genetics classes all across the World. With little costs to support, rapid reproduction rates, and a variety of physical traits that can be easily observed under a microscope, they are key for studying.
Genetics is the study of genes and this article will go over how we study genes and why it is important to us as a society. With advances in pharmacology and stem cell research, we can help eliminate diseases in our world and even help end world hunger. With genetics, we can help create a more perfect world.
Genetic Information is essential when determining and tracing diseases. Many of the most radical diseases today can be attributed to hereditary genes of an organism. Disease such as AlzheimerÂ’s and even cancer are believe to be hereditary. However, new disciplines such as Epigenetics can change the way we view and treat diseases from now on.
This article discusses the usage of a pedigree chart and mainly what those pedigree symbols mean to a geneticist. In addition, the article explains why pedigree charts can help geneticists understand how a disease can be passed on to future generations and why Punnett sqauares can explain why a pedigree chart appears like it is.
This article is about the use of homozygous recessive individuals for test crosses. Test crosses are used to see the recombination that occured in linked traits. Linked traits are alleles that are located on the same chromosome, sometimes very close together. These linked traits can interefere with one another, since they are so closely spaces. This article explains the use of test crosses, homozygous recessive individuals, and linked traits in general.
5 types of sex determination (male or female) in animals. There are the XY sex-determination system, XO sex-determination system, ZW sex-determination system, haplodiploidy, and environmentally dependent sex-determination system.
This article details the processes of transcription and messenger RNA processing that occur during gene expression in eukaryotic cells.
The reality of growing taller in a week
25 interesting facts about DNA. Its structure, genes, mutations.
I have submitted the article entitled" Use of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria". Kindly publish it after your scrutiny process.
In the latest decades, molecular data is often used in evolutionary biology. This article details some of the advantages of this type of data.
Brief explanation of PCR, polymerase chain reaction, and WGA (Whole Genome Amplification).
Agriculture is a major field in which recombinant DNA technology is applied. This article gives some examples and discusses the controversy surrounding this area.
Recombinant DNA technology has many fields of application. In this article, pharmaceuticals and engineered bacteria will be briefly discussed.
There are three factors that affect the mutation rate in organisms. They will be briefly discussed here.
After the development of microscopes, several discoveries led to a better understanding of heredity. Here some major advances will be discussed.
Genetics can traditionally be subdivided into three fields. These will be discussed here. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of the field will be emphasized.
How does DNA lead to a protein. Read about it here. Transcription and translation are explained and fitted in the larger process of protein synthesis.
Genetic variation is an important aspect of survival. But where does this variation come from? Find out here which five factors are responsible...
Not only do butchers attest to this fact, but also scientists and medical professionals who have been eyeing the various possible uses of this animal for nearly a century now.
Apart from its culinary uses, some parts of the pig are being studied for medical purposes:
Parthenogenesis is the asexual reproduction of a creature without the benefit of a male of the species. There are both benefits and problems with sexless reproduction.