Cell Transcription
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Cell Transcription

The main purpose of this article is to give an introduction into the process of transcription, which is the process by which RNA is synthesized to be used to create proteins. Transcription is one of the most important biological processes in cell and molecular biology and is fundamental to better to obtain a detailed understanding of advanced biological processes.
      The central dogma of biology is DNA à RNA à protein. This is one of the most fundamental and basic concepts to understanding cell and molecular biology. The process by which RNA is synthesized from DNA is known as transcription and the process by which protein is synthesized from RNA is known as translation. The focus of this article will be on transcription.

            The first step to the transfer of information from genes to proteins is to create RNA, which has a sequence that mirrors that of a specific segment of DNA.  The process begins with two strands of a DNA double helix separating, with one of them having the intended purpose of serving as the template strand for the synthesis of RNA. The next step involves ribonucleotides to create bonds with their complementary bases in the template strand. The ribonucleotides are positioned to these bonds by an enzyme known as RNA polymerase. This enzyme connects itself to the DNA and moves along while connecting ribonucleotides and creates a continuously growing RNA molecule. When RNA polymerase moves down the gene, it unwinds the DNA double helix that lies ahead and reconnects that which it has already transcribed.

            The entire process of transcription takes place in three different stages known as initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation marks the beginning of transcription and this happens when RNA polymerase binds to a distinct DNA sequence known as a promoter. Elongation refers to the stage of transcription in which RNA polymerase moves along the DNA and unwinds and rewinds it simultaneously. Termination refers to the end of the transcription process. It occurs when RNA polymerase is going through elongation and then recognizes a nucleotide sequence used as a signal for chain termination.

            While transcription is a very similar process in eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic organisms, there are some fundamental differences between them. One of the more significant differences relates to the basic definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes in that eukaryotes have a nucleus. This provides a significant difference because in prokaryotes, RNA information is immediately translated into a polypeptide chain. In eukaryotes, transcription and translation are separate processes and they take place in different locations due to the presence of a nucleus (transcription in the nucleus and translation in the cytoplasm).  Transcription takes place in the nucleus because in eukaryotes, that is where the DNA is located. The RNA is then chemically modified, and exported to the cytoplasm for translation. 

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